Collomia Sp.- TRUMPET FLOWER

"Stem: hairy or glandular. Leaf: alternate, simple, entire to generally pinnate-lobed, linear to ovate [fan-shaped]; basal short-petioled; cauline sessile. Inflorescence: heads or clusters, terminal, or flowers 1--3 in axils. Flower: calyx lobes connected by narrow membrane forming a pitcher-like projection at sinus, enlarging, not rupturing in fruit; corolla salverform to funnel-shaped. Fruit: ovate to elliptic, explosively dehiscent, valves reflexed on dehiscence. Seed: 1(2--3) per chamber, oblong, generally gelatinous when wet, brown. Chromosomes: 2n=16. Species In Genus: 15 species: North America, southern South America. Etymology: (Greek: glue, from wet seed surface) Note: Annual species self-pollinated; perennial herb species generally cross-pollinated. " [Jepson]


Local Species;

  1. Collomia grandiflora - large-flowered collomia [E-flora][PCBC][TSFTK]
  2. Collomia heterophylla - vari-leaved collomia [E-flora][PCBC][TSFTK]
  3. Collomia linearis - narrow-leaved collomia [E-flora][PCBC][TSFTK]

large-flowered collomia - Collomia grandiflora

[IFBC-E-flora]

[E-flora]

 

  • General: "Annual herb from a taproot; stems erect, unbranched when small but can have axillary branches if robust, finely hairy below, long-hairy and glandular or sticky above, 0.1-1 m tall." [IFBC-E-flora-1]
  • Leaves: "Basal leaves somewhat lobed, soon deciduous; stem leaves alternate, numerous, linear or lanceolate, 1-7 cm long, 2-13 mm wide, generally hairless above, glaucous and slightly glandular below, entire (basal somewhat lobed), the upper leaves (below the flower clusters) wider than the rest. [IFBC-E-flora-1]
  • Flowers: "Inflorescence of 1 to several, terminal, head-like clusters of unstalked flowers; corollas salmon- pink or yellow, the slender, flaring tube 20-30 mm long, spreading to five, 5-10 mm long lobes; calyces 7-10 mm long, the five lanceolate lobes to 4 mm long; pollen generally blue." [IFBC-E-flora-1]
  • Fruits: "Capsules, with 1-seeded chambers; seeds becoming sticky when moistened." [IFBC-E-flora-1]
  • Habitat/Range: "Dry to mesic meadows, rocky slopes, and openings in shrublands and forests in the lowland, steppe, and montane zones; infrequent on S Vancouver Island, the Gulf Islands and the lower Fraser Valley, locally frequent in SC BC; S to MT, WY, AZ and CA." [IFBC-E-flora-1]
  • Status: Native [E-flora-1]

Vari-leaved collomia - Collomia heterophylla

[IFBC-E-flora]
[E-flora]
  • Status: Native. [E-flora-2]
  • Habitat / Range: "Mesic forest openings, sandy or gravelly clearings, and streambanks in the lowland zone; locally frequent on S Vancouver Island, infrequent on the adjacent coast and lower Fraser Valley; S to ID, WY, AZ and CA." [IFBC-E-flora-2]
  • General: "Annual or biennial herb from a taproot; stems ascending to erect, simple or much-branched with several stems from the base, slimy-hairy especially above, 5-40 cm tall." [IFBC-E-flora-2]
  • Leaves: "Alternate, mostly stalked, usually hairy and slightly glandular; lower leaves 1-2 times pinnately cleft, the blades to 3.5 cm long and 2 cm wide; middle and upper leaves progressively less divided upwards, the uppermost leaves (below the flower clusters) smaller than the others, nearly unstalked, elliptic, merely toothed or entire." [IFBC-E-flora-2]
  • Flowers: "Inflorescence of dense, head-like, terminal (and sometimes axillary) clusters; corollas pink, lavender or white, the slightly flaring tube 8-17 mm long, spreading to five, 3- 4 mm long lobes; calyces 5-8 mm long, the five lobes narrowly lanceolate." [IFBC-E-flora-2]
  • Fruits: "Capsules, with 2- or 3-seeded chambers; seeds becoming sticky when moistened." [IFBC-E-flora-2]

Narrow-leaved collomia - Collomia linearis

[IFBC-E-flora] [E-flora]
  • Status: Native
  • Habitat/Range: "Dry to moist open grasslands, clearings, old fields, roadsides, and other disturbed sites in the lowland, steppe, and montane zones; common in S BC, less so northward where possibly introduced in some localities; N to AK, YT and NT, E to NB and NS and S to NE, WI, NM and CA."
  • General: "Annual herb from a taproot; stems erect, unbranched or branched above in robust plants, finely hairy below but long-hairy and glandular above, 10-60 cm tall." [IFBC-E-flora-3]
  • Leaves: "Alternate, numerous, linear or lanceolate, 1-5 cm long, 1-10 mm wide, generally hairless above, glaucous and minutely hairy and slightly glandular below, unstalked, entire; uppermost leaves (below the flower clusters) wider than the rest and often pale at the base." [IFBC-E-flora-3]
  • Flowers: "Inflorescence of 1 to several, terminal, head-like clusters of 7-20 unstalked flowers; corollas pink, bluish or white, the slender, trumpet-shaped tube 8-15 mm long, spreading to five short (1.5-3 mm) lobes; calyces 4-7 mm long, the five narrowly triangular lobes 1.5-3 mm long during flowering but elongating to 3-4 mm in fruit; pollen generally white." [IFBC-E-flora-3]
  • Fruits: "Capsules, with 1-seeded chambers; seeds becoming sticky when moistened." [IFBC-E-flora-3]

Key

Collomia

[Kozloff PWO]
 

Other Uses

Medicinal Uses

Phytochemistry

Twenty plant species were observed for tannin content. C. linearis showed the highest levels at 1.85%. [Khan et al., 2015]

"At the generic level nearly all species accumulate A-7-rutinoside, K- and Q-3-rutinosides, Q-3- galactoside, Q-3-arabinosylgalactoside and Q-3- gentiobioside. C. macrocalyx is the only species lacking the 3-rutinoside pathway and, with C. diversifolia, lacks the Q-3-galactoside and A-7- rutinoside." [Wilken1982]

"Analyses of extracts among populations of the 14 species of Collomia revealed the occurrence of 13 mono-, di- and triglycosides based on the flavonoids, acacetin, kaempferol, patuletinand quercetin. The glycosides included those having arabinose, galactose, glucose and rhamnose as mono-, bio- or triosides at the 3-, 5-, 3,7- or 7-position. Analyses of floral extracts from ten species revealed the occurrence of two anthocyanins, cyanidin and delphinidin 3-(p-coumarylglucosyl)-5-glucoside.... delphinidin-3-(pcoumarylglucoside)-5-glucoside in C. mazama and cyanidin-3-(p-coumarylglucoside)-5-glucoside in C. rawsoniana [7]." [Wilken1982]

Cultivation


Uses of Other SP.


References


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