Hemp-Nettle - Galeopsis tetrahit

Family: Mint [E-flora]
Other Names: (brittlestem hempnettle)[E-flora]

[IFBC-E-flora]

[E-flora]

Habitat / Range
Moist to mesic waste places and forest margins in the lowland, steppe and montane zones; frequent throughout BC south of 56degreeN; introduced from Eurasia. [IFBC-E-flora]
Arable land, sometimes in woods, fens and wet heaths[17]. Europe, including Britain, from Iceland and Russia to Spain and Macedonia.


Origin Status: Exotic [E-flora]

Identification

"Galeopsis tetrahit is a ANNUAL growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Self.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil." [PFAF]

General: Annual herb from a taproot; stems erect, 20-80 cm tall, coarse, branched when well developed, 4-angled, bristly-hairy, including red-tipped glandular-hairs, below nodes.[IFBC-E-flora]
Leaves: Opposite, egg-shaped to lanceolate, 3-10 cm long, 1-5 cm wide, coarsely blunt-toothed, tips pointed, bases rounded or wedge-shaped, stiff-hairy; stalked. [IFBC-E-flora]
Flowers: Inflorescence of several dense axillary flower clusters, subtended by upper leaves; corollas tubular, purple or pink or white with dark markings, 15-23 mm long, the upper lip arched and entire, the lower 3-lobed, spreading, the middle lobe flat, entire, often nearly as wide as long, bearing 2 nipple-like protuberences on the upper side near base, its network of dark markings restricted to the base, not reaching the margins; calyces about 1 cm long at flowering, somewhat larger in fruit, the erect spine-tipped teeth about equaling tube, the tube strongly 5-ribbed, hairy within; stamens 4, anthers hairy.[IFBC-E-flora]
Fruits: Nutlets, 4 clustered together, egg-shaped, 3-4 mm long, smooth. [IFBC-E-flora]
Notes: Galeopsis tetrahit originated from G. pubescens Bess. and G. speciosa Mill. by hybridization and polyploidy. The species may have arisen more than once, and may owe some of its variability to various origins. [IFBC-E-flora]


Hazards

The plant is poisonous, causing paralysis[74]. [PFAF]

Edible Uses