GEUM Avens

"Perennial herb from thick caudex or elongate rhizome. Stem: ascending to erect, generally hairy. Leaf: generally basal, generally odd-1-pinnately compound, upper cauline simple or not; leaflets lobed, alternately large, small, teeth uneven. Inflorescence: generally cyme, open; pedicel bractlets 0. Flower: hypanthium shallow, bractlets generally 5; stamens > 20; pistils many, ovary superior, continuous to style. Fruit: achene, ovoid to fusiform, +- flat; style elongated, persistent. 40–50 species: generally northern temperate, arctic. (Latin: ancient name)" [Jepson]

"Although the differentiation of the gynaecium usually terminates the reproductive axis, the axis may sometimes continue to grow and produce a second flower, an aberration not uncommonly seen in Geum. Abnormal growths of this kind are usually the consequence of mutations. Such mutations, causing the appearance of an organ in an unaccustomed position, are termed homoeotic, and the phenomenon in general, homoeosis." [GPOD]


Local Species;

  1. Geum aleppicum - Yellow avens [E-flora]
  2. Geum calthifolium - Caltha-leaved avens [E-flora][PCBC]
  3. Geum macrophyllum - Large-leaved avens [E-flora][PCBC][TSFTK]
  4. Geum schofieldii - Queen Charlotte Avens [PCBC][E-flora]

Geum macrophyllum

Yellow Avens - Geum aleppicum

[IFBC-E-flora-1]
[E-flora-1]

Origin Status: Native [E-flora-1]

Habitat / Range
"Moist woods, thickets and meadows in the lowland and montane zones; frequent throughout BC east of the Coast-Cascade Mountains, rare on S Vancouver Island; circumboreal, E to NF and S to CA, NB and PA; Eurasia." [IFBC-E-flora-1] "Thickets and grassy places in lowland and low mountains of N. Japan[58]. Europe, Asia, N. America." [PFAF-1]

Synonym

Identification
"Geum aleppicum is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.6 m (2ft).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to September, and the seeds ripen from Jul to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil." [PFAF-1]

General: "Perennial herb from a stout rhizome; stems erect, 30-100 cm tall, simple, 1 to several, tufted, coarse-hairy." [IFBC-E-flora-1]
Leaves: "Basal leaves several, long-stalked, interruptedly pinnately cleft, 10-25 (40) cm long, hairy along the veins beneath, with 5 to 9 cleft and double-toothed segments, egg-shaped with a wedge-shaped base, and a few interspersed much smaller segments, the terminal segment cleft over half its length, a bit larger than the main lateral segments; stem leaves alternate, 3 to 5, short-stalked to unstalked, smaller and with fewer segments." [IFBC-E-flora-1]
Flowers: "Inflorescence an open, bracted, terminal cluster of 3 to 10 stalked flowers; corollas yellow, wheel-shaped, the petals 5, egg-shaped, unnotched, 4-9 mm long; calyces 5-lobed, the lobes lanceolate, reflexed, nearly as long as the petals, alternating with narrowly lanceolate bractlets 1.5-3 mm long; ovaries superior; stamens numerous." [IFBC-E-flora1-]
Fruits: "Achenes, numerous, spreading, in globe-shaped heads; achenes ellipsoid, flattened, 3-5 mm long, coarse-hairy above, beaked with the 5- to 6-mm-long persistent style, which has an S-shaped kink near the tip and is hairy on the ultimately deciduous segment above the kink." [IFBC-E-flora-1]


Caltha-Leaved Avens - Geum calthifolium

[IFBC-E-flora-2]

[E-flora-2]

Origin Status: Native [E-flora-2]

Habitat / Range
"Bogs, wet rocky slopes and meadows in the lowland to alpine zones; infrequent on the coastal islands and adjacent mainland; amphiberingian, N to AK; E Asia." [IFBC-E-flora-2]

Synonyms

General: "Perennial herb from a branching rhizome and stout stem-base covered with reddish-brown-hairy scales; stems erect, 10-30 cm tall, yellowish-spreading-hairy." [IFBC-E-flora-2]
Leaves: "Basal leaves long-stalked, 4-25 cm long, hairy along the veins below, simple or with a few tiny segments below the greatly enlarged terminal segment, the terminal segment kidney-shaped to circular, coarsely and irregularly toothed, 2-6 cm long, 3-10 cm wide, heart-shaped at the base, rounded at the tip; stem leaves unstalked, coarsely blunt-toothed and lobed." [IFBC-E-flora-2]
Flowers: "Inflorescence of 1 to few, hairy-stalked, terminal flowers; corollas yellow, saucer-shaped, the petals 5, heart-shaped, notched at the tip, 8-12 mm; calyces densely hairy, 5-lobed, the lobes lanceolate, from 1/2 as long as to equalling the petals, alternating with lanceolate bractlets 2-6 mm long; ovaries superior; stamens numerous." [IFBC-E-flora-2]
Fruits: "Achenes, numerous, erect, in clusters; achenes bristly-hairy, beaked with long (to 1.5 cm), straight, long-hairy style." [IFBC-E-flora-2]


Large-leaved avens - Geum macrophyllum

[IFBC-E-flora-3]
[IFBC-E-flora-3]

[E-flora-3]

Origin Status: Native [E-flora]

Synonyms

  • Geum japonicum [Theplantlist.org][PFAF-2]

Identification

SUBTAXA PRESENT IN BC

"Geum japonicum is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.6 m (2ft).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 7 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil." [PFAF-2]

General: "Perennial herb from a short rhizome and stout stem-base, stems erect, 30-100 cm tall, simple, 1 to several, coarse-spreading-hairy." [IFBC-E-flora-3] Leaves: "Basal leaves several, long-stalked, interruptedly pinnately cleft, 10-40 cm long, hairy along the veins beneath, with mostly 5 to 9 main segments, egg-shaped and blunt-toothed, interspersed with several much smaller segments, the terminal segment heart- to kidney-shaped, 3-10 cm long, 3-15 cm wide, many times larger than the several lateral leaflets below, coarsely blunt-toothed and often deeply 3-lobed, rounded or squared-off to heart-shaped at the base; stem leaves alternate, 2 to 5, smaller, unstalked or nearly so, deeply 3-lobed or 3-parted." [IFBC-E-flora-3] Flowers: "Inflorescence an open, bracted terminal cluster of several stalked flowers; corollas yellow, saucer-shaped, the petals 5, broadly egg-shaped, shallowly notched at the tip, 4-7 mm long, calyces 5-lobed, the lobes broadly triangular, bent back, 3-5 mm long, alternating with linear bractlets (sometimes lacking) about 2 mm long; ovaries superior; stamens numerous." [IFBC-E-flora-3] Fruits: "Achenes, numerous, spreading in globe-shaped clusters; achenes ellipsoid, flattened, about 3 mm long, short-hairy, beaked with the 3- to 6-mm long persistent style, which has an S-shaped kink near the tip and is glandular below the kink, hairy or smooth and tardily deciduous above it." [IFBC-E-flora-3]
Notes:
Two subspecies occur in BC:
1. "Terminal segment of basal leaves shallowly rounded-lobed and minutely toothed; flower-shoots and -stalks commonly without glands; plants from west of Coast-Cascade Mountains..................... ssp. macrophyllum"
1. "Terminal segment of basal leaves deeply lobed and coarsely toothed or incised; flower-shoots and -stalks commonly strongly glandular; plants from east of Coast-Cascade Mountains.......................... ssp. perincisum (Rydb.) Hult." [IFBC-E-flora-3]

USDA Flower Colour: Yellow
USDA Blooming Period: Late Spring
USDA Fruit/Seed characteristics: Colour: Brown. Present over the Summer [USDA-E-flora-3]

Habitat / Range
"Moist meadows, fields, clearings, roadsides, streambanks and open forests in the lowland to montane zones; common throughout BC, except in driest parts of interior; amphiberingian, N to AK and NT, E to ON and S to MX; E Asia." [IFBC-E-flora-3]
"Woods and thickets in hills and low mountains all over Japan[58]. N. America, E. Asia."[PFAF-2]

Ecological Indicator Information
"A shade-intolerant, submontane to subalpine, Asian and North American forb distributed in the Pacific, Cordilleran, and Atlantic regions. Occurs on fresh to very moist, nitrogen-rich soils (Moder and Mull humus forms), often with a fluctuating groundwater table. Widespread in subalpine boreal, temperate, and cool mesothermal climates; its occurrence decreases with increasing elevation. Usually inhabits exposed mineral soil; sporadic in open-canopy, broad-leaved forests on water­receiving (floodplain, seepage, and stream­edge) sites; scattered in early-seral communi­ties. A nitrophytic species characteristic of disturbed sites." (IPBC) [E-flora-3]


Queen Charlotte Avens - Geum schofieldii

Family: (Rose family) [E-flora-4]

[IFBC-E-flora-4]

[E-flora-4]

Origin Status: Native [E-flora-4]

Habitat / Range
"Wet rock crevices in the lowland to subalpine zones; rare on the Queen Charlotte Islands and NW Vancouver Island; endemic." [IFBC-E-flora-4]

Identification
Red-Listed in B.C. [E-flora-4]

General: "Perennial herb from a short rhizome and stout stem-base covered with coarse fibres; stems erect, 10-30 cm tall." [IFBC-E-flora-4]
Leaves: "Basal leaves several, stalked, interruptedly pinnately cleft with 5 to 7 cleft and coarse-toothed major segments, interspersed with several much smaller ones, the terminal segment the largest, 3-lobed or 3-cleft, coarsely toothed; stem leaves alternate, more or less unstalked, much smaller and less divided." [IFBC-E-flora-4]
Flowers: "Inflorescence of 1 to few stalked, terminal flowers; corollas yellow, wheel-shaped, the petals 5, broadly egg-shaped, shallowly notched, 10-15 mm long; calyces 5-lobed, the lobes lanceolate, erect, shorter than the petals, alternating with 5 narrowly egg-shaped bractlets; ovaries superior; stamens numerous." [IFBC-E-flora-4]
Fruits: "Achenes, numerous in heads; achenes spindle-shaped, 3-4 mm long, silky-hairy, beaked with the 7- to 10-mm long, persistent, straight, smooth style." [IFBC-E-flora-4]
Notes: "Endemic to British Columbia. Considered by some authors to be of hybrid origin between G. rossii and G. calthifolium." [IFBC-E-flora-4]


Food Use

Other Uses

Medicinal Uses


Activities


Phytochemicals

"Extensive studies of Geum genus have led to the identification of many secondary metabolites, such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, and phenylpropanoids.... Geum genus contains phenols, saccharides, alkanes, steroidal saponins, and fatty acids,..." [Cheng et al., 2011] "In Geum L. species, eugenol is coupled with vicianose (glucose + arabinose)." [Bajaj MAPS 5] "Gemin A (8), characteristic of Geum species". [Chu PP]


Cultivation

G. Aleppicum, G. japonicum; "Easily grown in any moderately good garden soil that is well-drained[1]. Prefers a soil rich in organic matter[200]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200]." [PFAF-1]

Propagation

G. Aleppicum, G. japonicum; "Seed - sow spring or autumn in a cold frame[200]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer' Division in spring or autumn. This should be done every 3 - 4 years in order to maintain the vigour of the plant[200]. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring." [PFAF-1]


Use of Geum Sp.

"A number of Geum species were used medicinally in North America, Europe, and Asia. Geum rivale (Water Avens) and Geum urbane, for example, have both used for inflammations and infection of the skin and digestive system (PDR 2000e; Mills, Bone 2000). During the 1800s, Geum spp. were used as remedies for gastrointestinal ailments and hemorrhage (Felter, Lloyd 1898)." [PHVBH]

Drug Interaction: "A recent report of a possible drug interaction in a kidney transplant patient in Chile is worth mention. Apparently, use of a Geum remedy was not disclosed to the surgeons, and the patient’s cyclosporin level was increased despite having taken the dosage as directed. This was eventually attributed to the patient’s consumption of Geum chiloense; cyclosporin levels returned to normal when the herb was discontinued (Duclos, Goecke 2001)." [PHVBH]


References


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