HYPOCHAERIS CAT'S-EAR

"Annual, perennial herb; sap milky. Stem: erect, 1–8 dm, simple or few-branched. Leaf: basal in rosette, oblanceolate, margin entire to pinnately lobed; cauline alternate, scale-like. Inflorescence: heads liguliflorous, 1–few, erect, terminal on stem, branches; involucre cylindric to bell-shaped in flower, elongating in fruit; phyllaries graduated in 4–5 series, reflexed when dry; receptacle flat to convex, paleate with thin membranous scales, glabrous. Flower: generally many; ligules yellow, often ± red abaxially, readily withering. Fruit: fusiform, ribbed, long-beaked, or outer cylindric, beakless; pappus of stiff, plumose bristles, or shorter outer bristles merely barbed, tawny or dull white."
"± 60 species: Eurasia, northern Africa, South America. (Greek: less than joyous, from weedy habit) [Bogler 2006 FNANM 19:297–299]"
"Unabridged note: Etymology differs from that in FNANM, where the etymology on the Greek 'choeris' for pig; the correct spelling is 'chaeris' for joy." [Jepson]


Local Species;

  1. Hypochaeris glabra - Smooth Cat's-ear [E-flora][PCBC][TSFTK]
  2. Hypochaeris radicata - Hairy Cat's-ear [E-flora][PCBC][TSFTK]

Hypochaeris glabra - Smooth's Cat's-Ear

Synonym:

[IFBC-E-flora]

[E-flora]

Habitat / Range Roadsides, pastures and waste areas in the lowland zone; frequent in SW BC, known from S Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands; introduced from Europe.[IFBC-E-flora]
Grassy fields, derelict arable land, heaths, fixed dunes etc on sandy soils. This is a typical plant of non-calcareous sand plant communities[17]. Europe, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to N. Africa, Syria and W. Asia. [PFAF]

Hypochoeris glabra is a ANNUAL/PERENNIAL growing to 0.3 m (1ft).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies. [PFAF]
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.[PFAF]

  • Origin Status:' Exotic. [E-flora]
  • General: Annual herb from a taproot; stems erect, solitary or more often several, simple or sparingly branched, minutely bristly or glabrous, exuding milky juice when broken, 10-40 cm tall. [IFBC-E-flora]
  • Leaves: Basal leaves well-developed, oblanceolate, entire or lobed, glabrous to fringed on the margins, 2.5-15 cm long and 7-35 mm wide; stem leaves lacking or if present then minute and bractlike. [IFBC-E-flora]
  • Flowers: Heads with strap-shaped flowers, solitary to many in a terminal, flat-topped inflorescence; involucres 8-10 mm tall, 0.5-1.5 cm wide, increasing to 17 mm tall in fruit; involucral bracts spirally arranged, lanceolate, glabrous; ray flowers yellow. [IFBC-E-flora]
  • Fruits: Achenes nerved with minute projections, 4-5 mm long, inner ones with a well-developed beak as long as the body; pappus double, the inner ones of feathery bristles, the outer ones shorter and usually merely finely-barbed. [IFBC-E-flora]

Hypochoeris radicata - Hairy Cat's-Ear

[E-flora-2]

  • Origin Status: Exotic. [E-flora-2]

Habitat / Range: "Mesic to dry roadsides, lawns, pastures and waste places in the steppe and lowland zones; common in SW BC, known from Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands, also on the Queen Charlotte Islands, rare in SC BC; introduced from Europe." [IFBC-E-flora-2]
"Meadows and dry pastures, grassy dunes, waysides and open woods[5, 17]. Europe, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to N. Africa and western Asia." [PFAF-2]

"Hypochoeris radicata is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.3 m (1ft)."
"It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to September, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies lepidoptera." [PFAF-2] "Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil." [PFAF-2]

  • General: "Perennial herb from a woody stem-base or enlarged fibrous root; stems erect, simple or more often branched, several, often spreading-hairy below, exuding milky juice when broken, 15-60 cm tall." [IFBC-E-flora-2]
  • Leaves: "Basal leaves oblanceolate, densely stiff-hairy, toothed or pinnately cut, 3-35 cm long, 5-70 mm wide; stem leaves mostly lacking, represented by minute bracts." [IFBC-E-flora-2]
  • Flowers: "Heads with strap-shaped flowers, several in a terminal, flat-topped inflorescence; involucres 10-15 mm tall, at flowering, up to 25 mm in fruit, 2-4 cm wide; involucral bracts graduated, bristly-hairy or glabrous; ray flowers yellow." [IFBC-E-flora-2]
  • Fruits: "Achenes nerved on the beak with minute projections, 4-7 mm long, inner ones with a well-developed beak shorter or longer than the body; pappus double, the inner ones of feathery bristles, the outer ones shorter and usually merely finely-barbed." [IFBC-E-flora-2]
  • Ecological Indicator Information: "A very shade-intolerant, sub­montane to montane, European forb introduced to Pacific, Cordilleran, and Atlantic North America. Inhabits exposed mineral soil on water­shedding sites within montane boreal, temperate, and cool mesothermal climates; its occurrence decreases with elevation and latitude. Common in early-seral (often meadow-like) communities. Characteristic of disturbed sites." [IPBC-E-flora-2]

Hazards

Stringhalt: S. radicata; "This species is suspected of causing Stringhalt in horses if consumed in excess.(1,2)." "The most common plant species that have been found and identified in pastures where affected horses were located include: flatweed (Hypochaeris radicata), sheep's sorrel (Rumex acetosella) and couch grass (Elymus repens). The type of nerve damage sustained in horses with Australian stringhalt suggests a mould toxin (mycotoxin) or a fungal 'poison' found in the soils may be a cause for this condition. Mycotoxins can directly affect the long myelinated nerves in the hind limbs.[3]" [Wiki]1

"Hypochaeris radicata causes stringhalt (high stepping with hyperflexion of the hind limb) in horses in different countries." [Riet-Correa PPMRT]

"The disease named Australian stringhalt is different from classical stringhalt. The disease caused by H. radicata is more severe, usually bilateral, occurs in outbreaks, is seasonal, and most animals recover spontaneously. Classical stringhalt is a sporadic disease of unknown cause that has to be treated surgically because there is no spontaneous recovery (Rodrigues et al. 2007; Araújo et al. 2008)." [Riet-Correa PPMRT]

"The disease was reproduced experimentally in a 6-month-old horse weighing 250 kg by the daily administration of 9.8 kg of fresh plant for 50 days. Clinical signs first appeared 19 days after dosing began (Araújo et al. 2008)." [Riet-Correa PPMRT] "Treatment with phenytoin or other anticonvulsants can be of benefit. Grazing should be avoided in areas severely infested by the plant in order to prevent the disease." [Riet-Correa PPMRT]

Edible Uses

Other Uses

Medicinal Uses


Pharmacology


Phytochemicals

[freitas,2004]

[SoilBio-44]

[Bohm FSF]

Cultivation

Propagation

S. glabra; Seed - sow spring in a cold frame and only just cover the seed. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. If you have enough seed it can be sown outdoors in situ in the spring. [PFAF]

S. radicata; Seed - sow spring in a cold frame and only just cover the seed. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. If you have sufficient seed it can be sown outdoors in situ in the spring.[PFAF-2]


Related sp.

Hypochaeris maculata Linnaeus spotted cat’s-ear northern and central Europe In one district in theYorkshire Pennines in the eighteenth century,Hypochaeris maculata was believed a cure for‘tetters’and other skin complaints—because of its spotted leaves, it has been (perhaps fancifully) suggested.70 [MPFT]

Paramo chicory (hypochaeris sessiliflora Kunth) "Paramo species from Venezuela to Bolivia, reported ethnobotanically from Peru (EGG) but not taxonomically reconfirmed (BAZ)." [Duke MPLA]

Activities:

  • Antibilious (f; DLZ; EGG);
  • Antimalarial (f; DLZ);
  • Depurative (f; MPG);
  • Laxative (f; MPG);
  • Purgative (f; MPG);
  • Refrigerant (f; MPG);
  • Sudorific (f; MPG).[Duke MPLA]

Indications:

  • Biliousness (f; DLZ; EGG);
  • Constipation (f; MPG);
  • Fever (f; MPG);
  • Hepatosis (f; EGG);
  • Malaria (f; DLZ; MPG).[Duke MPLA]
  • Venezuelans eat leaves in salads, like chicory. Bolivians chew the latex like chewing gum (DLZ; MPG)
  • Bolivians regard the decoction as antibilious and antimalarial (DLZ).
  • Peruvians use the plant as antibilious in liver problems (EGG).
  • Venezuelans use the plant as depurative, laxative, purgative, refrigerant, sudorific, and for malaria (MPG).[Duke MPLA]

Hypoclulerin - Hypochaeris setosus [Connolly DT]


References


Page last modified on Saturday, October 22, 2017 12:25 AM